pod afIoc

A powerful Dependency Injection / Inversion Of Control framework



(Service) - Maintains a collection of named ActorPools.


Implement to provide your own dependency resolution.


(Service) - A DependencyProvider that injects Log instances.


(Service) - The registry of IoC services; this is the main IoC interface.


(Service) - Holds meta information on how the IoC registry was built.


(Service) - Contribute functions to be executed on Registry shutdown.


(Service) - Contribute functions to be executed on Registry startup.


(Service) - Use to create LocalRef / LocalList / LocalMap instances whose contents can be cleaned up.



Passed to AppModule @Contribute methods to allow the method to contribute configuration.


Returned from AppModule Configuration methods to add ordering constraints to your contributions.


Passed to DependencyProviders to give contextual injection information.


Wraps an IoC Registry instance as Fantom service.


Passed to AppModule @Advise methods to allow the method to, err, advise services!


Returned from AppModule MethodAdvisor methods to wrap calls to advised methods.


Use to create an IoC Registry.


Service information, as returned by Registry.serviceDefinitions().


Returned from AppModule ServiceDefinitions methods to allow further service options to be set.


Passed to AppModule defineServices() methods to add and override service definitions.


Returned from AppModule ServiceDefinitions methods to allow further override options to be set.



As returned by InjectionCtx to inform DependencyProviders what kind of injection is occurring.


As returned by ServiceDefinition to define the lifecycle state of a service.


Proxy strategies for Services.


Scope definitions for Services.



Use in AppModule classes to denote a service advisor method.


Use in services to inject classes that have not been defined as a service.


Use in AppModule classes to denote a service builder method.


Use in AppModule classes to denote a service contribution method.


Use in services to inject other services and dependencies.


Use in AppModule classes to denote a service override method.


Use in services to mark a method to be called after ctor and field injection.


Use on AppModule classes to define other modules to be loaded.



As thrown by IoC.


IoC is an Inversion of Control (IoC) container and Dependency Injection (DI) framework inspired by the most excellent Tapestry 5 IoC.

Like Guice? Know Spring? Then you'll love IoC!

  • Injection - any way *you* want it!
    • field injection
    • ctor injection
    • it-block ctor injection - new make(|This|in) { in(this) }
  • Distributed service configuration
    • configure any service from any pod / module
    • configure via simple Lists and Maps
  • Override everything
    • override services and configuration, even override your overrides!
    • replace real services with test services
    • set sensible defaults and let users override them
  • True lazy loading
    • service proxies ensure nothing is created until you actually use it
    • make circular service dependencies a thing of the past!
  • AOP - Advise your services
    • intercept method calls to your services
    • apply cross cutting concerns such as authorisation, transactions and logging
  • Extensible
    • inject your own objects and dependencies, not just services
  • Designed to help YOU the developer!
    • simple API - 1 facet and 2 registry methods is all you need!
    • over 70 bespoke and informative Err messages!
    • Extensively tested: - All tests passed! [37 tests, 222 methods, 485 verifies]


Install IoC with the Fantom Repository Manager ( fanr ):

C:\> fanr install -r http://repo.status302.com/fanr/ afIoc

To use in a Fantom project, add a dependency to build.fan:

depends = ["sys 1.0", ..., "afIoc 2.0+"]


Full API & fandocs are available on the Status302 repository.

Quick Start

1). Create a text file called Example.fan

using afIoc

// ---- Services are plain Fantom classes -------------------------------------

** A reusable piece of code
class PokerService {
    Void poke() { echo("Poking ${this.toStr}") }

** PokerService is reused here
class MyService {
    ** Inject services into services!
    @Inject PokerService? poker

// ---- Modules - every IoC application / library needs one -------------------

** This is the central place where services are defined and configured
class MyModule {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

// ---- Use the IoC Registry to access the services ---------------------------

class Main {
    Void main() {
        // create the registry, passing in our module
        registry := RegistryBuilder().addModule(MyModule#).build().startup()

        // different ways to access services
        test1 := (MyService) registry.serviceById("myService")       // returns a service instance
        test2 := (MyService) registry.dependencyByType(MyService#)   // returns the same instance
        test3 := (MyService) registry.autobuild(MyService#)          // build a new instance
        test4 := (MyService) registry.injectIntoFields(MyService())  // inject into existing objects

        // all test classes poke the same instance of PokerService

        // clean up

2). Run Example.fan as a Fantom script from the command line:

C:\> fan Example.fan

[info] [afIoc] Adding module definition for Example_0::MyModule
[info] [afIoc] Starting IoC...

12 Services:

     Example_0::MyService1: Defined
     Example_0::MyService2: Defined
         afIoc::ActorPools: Builtin
afIoc::DependencyProviders: Builtin
        afIoc::LogProvider: Builtin
           afIoc::Registry: Builtin
       afIoc::RegistryMeta: Builtin
   afIoc::RegistryShutdown: Builtin
    afIoc::RegistryStartup: Builtin
afIoc::ServiceProxyBuilder: Builtin
 afIoc::ThreadLocalManager: Builtin
afPlastic::PlasticCompiler: Builtin

16.67% of services are unrealised (2/12)

   ___    __                 _____        _
  / _ |  / /_____  _____    / ___/__  ___/ /_________  __ __
 / _  | / // / -_|/ _  /===/ __// _ \/ _/ __/ _  / __|/ // /
/_/ |_|/_//_/\__|/_//_/   /_/   \_,_/__/\__/____/_/   \_, /
                            Alien-Factory IoC v2.0.4 /___/

IoC Registry built in 205ms and started up in 11ms

[warn] [afIoc] Autobuilding type 'Example_0::MyService1' which is *also* defined as service 'Example_0::MyService1 - unusual!

Poking fan.Example_0.Poker@680e2291
Poking fan.Example_0.Poker@680e2291
Poking fan.Example_0.Poker@680e2291
Poking fan.Example_0.Poker@680e2291

[info] [afIoc] Stopping IoC...
[info] [afIoc] IoC shutdown in 19ms
[info] [afIoc] "Goodbye!" from afIoc!


A service is a Fantom class whose instances are created and managed by IoC. It ensures only a single instance is created for the whole application or thread. Services are identified by a unique ID (usually the qualified class name). Services must be defined in a module. Services may solicit, and be instantiated with, configuration data defined by multiple modules.

A dependency is any class instance or object that a service depends on. A dependency may or may not be a service. Non service dependencies are managed by user defined dependency providers.

A module is a class whose static methods define and configure services.

The registry is the key class in an IoC application. It creates, holds and manages the service instances.

The IoC Registry

Frameworks such as BedSheet and Reflux are IoC containers. That is, they create and look after a Registry instance, using it to create classes and provide access to services.

Sometimes you don't have access to an IoC container and have to create the Registry instance yourself. (Running unit tests is a good example.) In these cases you will need to use the RegistryBuilder, passing in the module(s) that define your services:

registry := RegistryBuilder().addModule(AppModule#).build().startup()
service  := registry.serviceById("serviceId")

If your code uses other IoC libraries, make sure modules from these pods are added too. Example, if using the IocEnv library then add a dependency on the afIocEnv pod:

registry := RegistryBuilder()

Fantom Services

The Fantom language has the notion of application wide services. Should your application make use of this mechanism, IoC provides the IocService wrapper class that holds a Registry instance and extends Fantom's Service. It also contains convenience methods for creating and accessing the registry.

For example, to create and start a Fantom IoC Service:

IocService([ MyModule# ]).start()

Then, from anywhere in your code, use the standard Fantom service methods to locate the IocService instance and query the registry:

iocService := (IocService) Service.find(IocService#)
myService  := iocService.dependencyByType(MyService#)

Uninstall IocService like any other:



Every IoC application / library will have a module class. Module classes are where services are defined and configured. Module classes declare static methods with special facets that tell IoC what they do.

By convention an application will call its module AppModule and libraries will name modules after themselves, but with a Module suffix. Example, BedSheet has a module named BedSheetModule.

Pod Meta-data

It is good practice, when writing an IoC application or library, to always include the following meta in the build.fan

meta = [ "afIoc.module" : "<module-qname>" ]

Where <module-qname> is the qualified type name of the pod's main module class.

This is how IoC knows what modules each pod has. It is how the addModulesFromPod("afIocEnv") line works; IoC inspects the meta-data in the afIocEnv pod and looks up the afIoc.module key. It then loads the modules listed.

The afIoc.module meta may also be a Comma Separated List (CSV) of module names; handy if the pod has many modules. Though it is generally better (more explicit / less prone to error) to use the @SubModule facet on a single module class.


A service can be any old Fantom class. What differentiates a service from any other class is that you typically want to reuse a service in multiple places. An IoC Service is a class that is created and held by the IoC Registry. IoC may then inject that service into other classes, which may themselves be services.

For IoC to instantiate and manage a service it needs to know:

  • How to build the service
  • What unique ID to store it under
  • What Fantom Type the service is
  • What scope it has (application or threaded)
  • What its proxy strategy is.

(Scopes and proxy strategies are covered later, as they're kinda advanced topics.)

All these details are defined in the application's module.

Note that IoC does not want an instance of your service. Instead it wants to know how to make it. That is because IoC will defer creating your service for as long as possible (lazy loading).

If nobody ever asks for your service, it is never created. When the service is explicitly asked for, either by you or by anther service, only then is it created.

Note that under the covers, all services are resolved via their unique service ids, injection by type is merely a layer on top, added for convenience.

Build Your Own

If we have a class MyService that we wish to use as a service, then we need to tell IoC how to build it. The simplest way is to declare a static build method in the module that creates the instance for us:

using afIoc

// Example 1
class AppModule {

    static MyService buildMyService() {
        return MyService()

The method may be called anything you like and be of any scope (internal or even private), but it needs to be static and it needs the @Build facet.

Because of the @Build facet, IoC inspects the method and infers the following:

  • Calling the method creates a service instance - inferred from @Build
  • The service is of type MyService - inferred from the return type
  • The unique ID is myPod::MyService - inferred from the return type's qualified name

We can now retrieve an instance of MyService with the following:

myService := (MyService) registry.serviceById(MyService#.qname)


myService := (MyService) registry.dependencyByType(MyService#)

The serviceId facet attribute allows you to define a service with a different ID.

@Build { serviceId="wotever" }
static MyService buildMyService() {
    return MyService()

Taking our example further, what if MyService created penguins? Well, it'd be useful to have a Penguins class / service to hold them in so we'll pass that into the ctor of MyService. We'll also tell MyService how many penguins it should make. The MyService ctor now looks like:

class MyService {
    new make(Int noOfPenguins, Penguins penguins) { ... }

Because we've changed the MyService ctor we need to update the MyService builder method in the AppModule. We need a builder method for the Penguins service too. AppModule now looks like:

using afIoc

// Example 2
class AppModule {

    static Penguins buildPenguins() {
       return Penguins()

    static MyService buildMyService(Penguins penguins) {
        return MyService(3, penguins)

Before IoC calls buildMyService() it looks at the method signature and assumes any parameters are dependencies that need to be passed in. In this case, it is the service Penguins. So it looks up, and creates if it doesn't already exist, the Penguins service and passes it to buildMyService(). This is an example of method injection. All this is automatic, and all builder methods may declare any number of services and dependencies as a method parameters.

Note that the @Build facet has other attributes that give you control over the service's unique ID, scope and proxy strategy.

Service builder methods are a very powerful pattern as they give you complete control over how the service is created. But they are also very verbose and require a lot of code. So lets look at an easier way; the defineServices() method...

Defining Services

Modules may declare a defineServices() static method. It may be of any visibility but must be called defineServices and it must define a single parameter of ServiceDefinitions. The method lets you create and add service definitions in place of writing builder methods.

We could replace the previous Example 1 with the following:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

It may look simple, but several things are inferred from the above code:

  • The service is of type MyService - inferred from the service type
  • The unique ID is myPod::MyService - inferred from the service type's qualified name
  • MyService may be instantiated by IoC.

Note how we didn't create an instance of MyService, just told IoC that it exists. When a service is defined in this way, IoC will inspect it and choose a suitable ctor to create it with.

Now lets replace the builder methods in Example 2 with service definitions:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {
        defs.add(MyService#).withCtorArgs([ 3 ])

That's a lot more succinct! But wait! The MyService definition just declares a ctor arg of 3, but what about the Penguins service? Just like method injection, IoC will assume all unknown parameters are services and will attempt to resolve them as such. This is an example of ctor injection and more is said in the relevant section.

Dependency Injection

This section looks at how to inject one service into another; or in particular, different ways of injecting the Penguins service into MyService. The examples assume that both services have been defined or have builder methods.

Field Injection

Field injection requires the least amount of work on your behalf, but has a couple of drawbacks. To use, simply mark the fields to be injected with @Inject. And that's it!

using afIoc

class MyService {
    @Inject private Penguins?     penguins
    @Inject private OtherService? otherService


When you request MyService from the registry:

myService := (MyService) registry.dependencyByType(MyService#)

IoC creates an instance of MyService and then sets the fields. As simple as it sounds, it does have a couple of drawbacks:

  1. Services not available in the ctor

    Because fields are set after the service is constructed, they are not available during the constructor call. Attempting to use an injected field in the ctor will result in a NullErr.

    using afIoc
    class MyService {
        @Inject private Penguins?     penguins
        @Inject private OtherService? otherService
        new make() {
            penguins.save(...)  // Runtime NullErr --> penguins is null
  2. Fields *must* be nullable

    Because the fields are set after the service is constructed, they need to be nullable. This is a shame because one of the nice features of Fantom is being able to specify non-nullable types.

  3. Fields cannot be const

    Because the fields are set after the service is constructed, they cannot be const. This poses a problem for services that are to be shared between threads, because these services need to be const - therefore all their fields need to be const too.

How can we overcome these little niggles? Why, by setting the fields inside the ctor!

Ctor Injection

Ctor injection is where IoC hands the service all the dependencies it needs via ctor arguments. IoC inspects the parameter list of the ctor, resolves each one as a dependency, and passes it in.

class MyService {
    private const Penguins     penguins
    private const OtherService otherService

    new make(Penguins penguins, OtherService otherService) {
        this.penguins     = penguins
        this.otherService = otherService


Ctor injection puts you in complete control. You list which dependencies your service requires as ctor parameters and IoC passes them in. The dependencies may be used there and then or set as fields. Because the fields are set in the ctor, they may be non-nullable and const.

When IoC instantiates a class, it will always attempt ctor injection. That is, it will always inspect the ctor parameter list and attempt to resolve them as dependencies.

Note how the fields are not annotated with @Inject. (In fact the class doesn't even have a using afIoc statement!) That's because IoC does not need to touch the fields, we set them ourselves. Which leads to the one downfall of ctor injection:

  1. Fields must be set manually

    This is not much of an issue for the above example, as it only means 2 extra lines of code. But what if you had a mega service with 12 or more dependencies!? It would quickly become quite tiresome to set all the fields manually.

Note that ctor's can be of any scope you like: public, protected, internal or private. In the following examples, the ctors are public purely for brevity.

Which ctor?

Sometimes your service may have multiple ctors. Perhaps one for building and another for testing. When this happens, which one should IoC use to create the service?

By default, IoC will choose the ctor with the most parameters. But this behaviour can be overridden by annotating a chosen ctor with @Inject.

using afIoc

const class MyService {

    ** By default, IoC would choose this ctor because it has the most parameters
    new make(Penguins penguins, OtherService otherService) {

    ** But we can force IoC to use this ctor by annotating it with @Inject
    new make(|This| in) {

It-Block Injection

The easiest method of field injection is via a it-block ctor parameter (see This):

using afIoc

const class MyService {
    @Inject private const Penguins     penguins
    @Inject private const OtherService otherService

    new make(|This| f) { f(this) }


This is a form of ctor injection where the last parameter is the it-block function, |This|. When IoC encounters this special parameter it creates and passes in a function that sets all the fields annotated with @Inject. So to set all the fields in the service, just call the function!

A more verbose example would be:

using afIoc

const class MyService {
    @Inject private const Penguins penguins

    new make(|This| injectionFunc) {
        // right here, the penguins field is null

        // let IoC set the penguins field

        // now I can use the penguins field
        users.setIq("traci", 69)

Again, because the fields are set in the ctor they may be non-nullable and const.

Note this is sometimes referred to as the serialisation ctor because it is how the Fantom serialisation mechanism sets fields when it inflates class instances.

Mixed Injection

If a service is to be only used in the ctor there is no point in creating a field for it; it could just be injected as a ctor parameter. An it-block parameter may also be declared to set all the @Injected fields. This is an example of mixed injection.

using afIoc

const class MyService {
    @Inject private const Penguins penguins

    new make(OtherService other, |This| in) {

        // let afIoc inject penguins and any other @Inject fields

        // use the other service

Note that the it-block parameter is always the last parameter in the parameter list.

Ctor parameters should be declared in the following order:

new make(<config>, <supplied>, <dependencies>, <it-block>) { ... }


  • config - service contributions / configuration (see Service Configuration)
  • supplied - any ctor args declared by service definitions
  • dependencies - dependencies and other services
  • it-block - for it-block injection

Post Injection

Once IoC has instantiated your service, called the ctor, and performed any field injection, it then looks for any methods annotated with @PostInjection - and calls them. Similar to ctor injection, @PostInjection methods may take dependencies and services as parameters.

using afIoc

const class MyService {

    new make(|This| in) {

    Void doStuff(OtherService otherService) {


It is common to autobuild class instances. So much so, there is an autobuild() method on the registry, an autobuild() method on service configuration objects and there is even an @Autobuild facet. But what is autobuilding?

Autobuilding is the act of creating an instance of a class with IoC. That is, IoC will new up the instance and perform any necessary injection as previously outlined.

For example, all services defined via defineServices() methods are autobuilt.

Let's look at this code:

Void main() {
    registry := RegistryBuilder().build().startup()

    myClass := (MyClass) registry.autobuild(MyClass#)


It uses IoC to create an instance of MyClass with all dependencies injected into it. Note that MyClass is not a service for it has not been defined as a service in any module class. Instead, MyClass is just a simple standalone instance.

Autobuilding a class will always create a new instance. This is the difference between a service and an autobuilt class. Services are cached and re-used by IoC. IoC maintains a lifecyle for, and looks after services. Autobuilt instances are your responsibility.

An autobuilt class may be a service (such as those defined via defineServices() methods) but the mere act of autobuilding does not make it a service.

Now you know the difference, lets look at the @Autobuild facet:

using afIoc
class MyClass {

    Registry registry

    @Autobuild { ctorArgs=["arg1", "arg2"] }
    MyOtherClass otherClass

    new make(|This| f) { f(this) }

Here the registry service is injected, and a new instance of otherClass is created and injected. arg1 and arg2 are used as ctor arguments when building MyOtherClass.

The @Autobuild facet is an example of custom dependency injection. See Dependency Providers for details.

Service Configuration

Arguably, services are more useful if they can be configured. IoC has a built-in means to configure, or contribute configuration, to any service defined in any module!

List Configuration

Lets have our Penguins service hold a list of penguin related websites. And lets have other modules be able to contribute their own penguin URLs.

Following the standard principle of dependency injection, these URLs will be handed to the Penguins service. In IoC this is done via ctor injection:

class Penguins {
    private Uri[] urls

    new make(Uri[] urls) {
        this.urls = urls

If the first parameter of a service's ctor is a List, IoC assumes it is configuration and scans all known modules for appropriate contribution methods:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

    @Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
    static Void contributePenguinUrls(Configuration config) {

Contribution methods are static methods annotated with @Contribute. They may be of any scope and be called anything; although by convention they have a contributeXXX() prefix. The serviceType facet parameter tells IoC which service the method contributes to. Each contribution method may add as many items to the list as it likes.

Note that any any module may define contribution methods for any service. Because the modules may be spread out in multiple pods, this is known as distributed configuration.

The Configuration object is write only. Only when all the contribution methods have been called, is the full list of configuration data known. Because contribution methods may be called in any order, being able to read contributions would only give partial data. Becasuse partial data can be misleading it is deemed better not to give any at all.

If the Penguins service were to built via a builder method then the method's first parameter (if it is a List or a Map) is taken to be service configuration and injected appropriately:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    static Penguins buildPenguins(Uri[] penguinUrls) {

    @Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
    static Void contributePenguinUrls(Configuration config) {

Because the service configuration is a list of Uris, the contribution methods must contribute Uri objects. It is an error to add anything else. Example, if we try to add the number 19 we would get the Err message:

afIoc::IocErr: Contribution 'Int' does not match service configuration value of Uri

That said, all contribution values are coerced via afBeanUtils::TypeCoercer which gives a little leeway. TypeCoercer looks for toXXX() and fromXXX() methods to coerce values from one type to another. This is useful when contributing the likes of Regex which has a fromStr() method, or File which has a Uri ctor:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    static MyService buildMyService(File[] file) {

    @Contribute { serviceType=MyService# }
    static Void contributeFiles(Configuration config) {
        config.add(File(`/css/styles-1.css`))  // file added as is
        config.add(`/css/styles-2.css`)        // Uri coerced to File via File(Uri) ctor


What if the order of the penguin URLs were important? What if we wanted our URL to appear before others? Luckily service configurations can be ordered.

First we have to give the configurations a unique ID. We do this by using Configuration.set(). Note that Configuration.set() is annotated with @Operator which means calls to it may be abbreviated using map syntax:

using afIoc

class AppModule {
    @Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
    static Void contributePenguinUrls(Configuration config) {
        // standard call to set()
        config.set("natGeo",          `http://ngkids.co.uk/did-you-know/emperor_penguins`)

        // same as above, but using the Map.set() @Operator syntax
        config["youngPeoplesTrust"] = `http://ypte.org.uk/factsheets/penguins/`
        config["kidZone"]           = `http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/penguins/`

Then in a different module, when more URLs are contributed we can use ordering constraints to say where our URL should appear.

using afIoc

class MyModule {
    @Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
    static Void contributePenguinUrls(Configuration config) {
        config.set("defenders", `http://www.defenders.org/penguins/basic-facts`).before("natGeo")
        config.set("wikipedia", `http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penguin`         ).after ("kidZone")

The above shows how to use configuration IDs to position the contributions using before and after notation. If the Penguins service were to print the List it was injected with, it would look like:


Not every piece of configuration needs an ID. If one isn't provided IoC makes up its own unique ID for the config. But as nobody knows what that ID is, other config can't then be ordered before or after it - obviously!

Note that configuration IDs are also used for overriding / removing contributions. See Configuration Overrides for details.

Map Configuration

Sometimes it's useful for the service to know what IDs were used when adding pieces of configuration. In that case, it can replace the List (in the ctor or builder method) with a Map:

class Penguins {
    private Str:Uri urls

    new make(Str:Uri urls) {
        this.urls = urls

Injected configuration Maps are always ordered. If the Penguins service were to print its Map, it would look like:

  "defenders"         : `http://www.defenders.org/penguins/basic-facts`,
  "natGeo"            : `http://ngkids.co.uk/did-you-know/emperor_penguins`,
  "youngPeoplesTrust" : `http://ypte.org.uk/factsheets/penguins/`,
  "kidZone"           : `http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/penguins/`,
  "wikipedia"         : `http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penguin`

As you can see, in effect, we've just configured and injected a Map!

In this Penguins example we've been using a Str for the key, but we could use any object; Uris, Files, MimeTypes...

Again, map keys are type coerced to the correct type. If the map key does not fit, or can not be coerced, to the type declared by the service an error is thrown.


A cool feature about IoC is that just about anything may be overridden, be it a service implementation, a ctor parameter or a piece of config.

Note that all aspects of IoC are determined at registry startup. Once the registry is built, very little changes. So when we talk of overriding we're actually talking about overriding definitions. This is done via AppModules and is very powerful.

Overriding Services

Some aspects of Service can not be changed, these are:

  • The unique ID
  • The Fantom Type

All other aspects may be. Substituting service implementations can be useful for testing where real services may be switched with mocked versions.

Given that MyService has already been defined in a module, we can substitute it for our own instance by writing an @Override method.

@Override methods are similar to builder methods in that they may be of any scope, and be named what you like, but they must be static and be annotated with the @Override facet.

static MyService overrideMyService() {
    // build a different instance
    return MyServiceImpl(...)

The return type, MyService in the above example, is used to find the service to override. The return type must match the original service type. If more control is required over which service to override, you can use the serviceId or serviceType facet attributes:

@Override { serviceId="acme::MyService" }
static MyService overrideMyService() {
    // build a different instance
    return MyServiceImpl(...)

Service scope and proxy strategies may also be overriden via facet attributes. The override may also be marked as optional if there is a chance the original service may not be defined; for example if it is defined by an optional 3rd party library.

Similar to @Build methods, method injection is used to resolve method parameters as dependencies:

static MyService overrideMyService(Uri[] urls, Registry registry) {
    // 'urls' is the service configuration
    // use the registry to build MyServiceImpl
    return registry.autobuild(MyServiceImpl#, [urls])

@Override methods can be a little cumbersome, so services may also be override via the defineServices() method:

static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {
    // define a different MyService instance

Overriding Configuration

Configuration contributions may be overridden by using the Configuration.overrideXXX() methods. Assuming we have a configuration of:

@Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
static Void contributePenguinUrls(Configuration config) {
    config["wikipedia"] = `http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penguin`

We may override the contribution value with:

@Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
static Void contributeMoarPenguinUrls(Configuration config) {
    config.overrideValue("wikipedia", `https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-SVF1i-7l5k`).before("kidZone")

Note that when we override a contribution we are able to re-define the ordering constraints.

Or, if we decided we didn't like the wikipedia entry at all, we could remove it.

@Contribute { serviceType=Penguins# }
static Void contributeMoarPenguinUrls(Configuration config) {

Overriding Overrides

Services and Service contributions can only be overridden the once, because if two different modules tried to override the same service, which one should win!?

class Module1 {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

class Module2 {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

Becasue modules are loaded in any order, either Module1 or Module2 could perform the override. Because this behaviour is non-deterministic, it is not allowed.

Instead IoC introduces the concept of an override ID. Whenever an override is performed, you have the option of providing an ID. This ID may be overridden. If an override provides its own override ID then it, in turn, may also be overriden. And so on.

Rewriting the above example into a legal use case:

class Module1 {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

class Module2 {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {

Now it becomes obvious who overrides who! As mentioned, the override chain may be perpetuated:

class Module1 {
    static Void defineServices(ServiceDefinitions defs) {
        // this cannot be overridden because it does not provide an override ID

The @Override facet has an overrideId attribute which is the same as above. Overriding Service definitions and @Override methods may be freely mixed.

The service Configuration class also provides a means to set an override ID. Overriding service contribution overrides work in exactly the same way.

TIP: It is good practice to provide an override ID so others may override your override.

Dependency Providers

IoC injects services, but it can also inject other custom classes and objects. By contributing instances of DependencyProvider to the DependencyProviders service you can inject your own objects:

@Contribute { serviceType=DependencyProviders# }
static Void contributeDependencyProviders(Configuration config) {
    config["myProvider"] = MyProvider()

Note that the DependencyProviders service is currently annotated with @NoDoc as, other than being a reciever for contributions, it has no other public use.

DependencyProvider defines 2 simple methods:

** Should return 'true' if the provider can provide.
Bool canProvide(InjectionCtx injectionCtx)

** Should return the object to be injected.
Obj? provide(InjectionCtx injectionCtx)

The InjectionCtx class holds details of the injection currently being performed, e.g. ctor / field / method / it-block injection, field / method details, etc...

Note that canProvide() is called for all fields of a class, not just those annotated with @Inject. The @Autobuild facet is an example of this. IoC has an (internal) AutobuildDependencyProvider that looks for fields annotated with @Autobuild. It then autobuilds the field value as required and returns it for injection.

IoC also provides dependency providers for the following:

Log Injection

Log instances may be injected as dependencies.

class Example {
    @Inject private Log log


See LogProvider for details.

LocalRef Injection

LocalRefs, LocalLists, and LocalMaps from Alien-Factory's Concurrent library may be injected as dependencies.

const class Example {
    const LocalRef localRef

    @Inject { type=Str[]# }
    const LocalList localList

    @Inject { type=[Str:Slot?]# }
    const LocalMap localMap


Using type to define the backing List / Map type is optional but recommended. By default the field name is used as the local name, this may be overridden by declaring an ID in @Inject:

@Inject { id="localName" }
const LocalRef localRef

See ThreadLocalManager for details.

Service Scope

Services may either be created just the once - perApplication scope, or created once per thread - perThread scope.

Service scope defaults to perApplication for const classes and perThread for non-const classes. The scope of a service may be explicitly set when you define it - either in the @Build / @Override facet or in the defineServices() method.

The article From One Thread to Another... states a Fantom fact:

Only instances of const classes can be shared between multiple threads.

As such, only const classes may have the perApplication scope. The implications of this largely depends on the type of application you're building.

Reflux Applications

If building a Reflux application then all the processing happens in the UI thread. In effect, you're building a single threaded application. Therefore, for all intents and purposes, perThread scope is the same as perApplication scope. So all your services can be non-const and threaded. Happy days!

Web / REST Applications

Web / REST applications are multi-threaded; each web request is served on a different thread. This gives you a choice when defining a service:

Per Thread: A new instance of the service will be created for each thread / web request. BedSheet's HttpRequest and HttpResponse are good examples of perThread services, with a new instance being created for each request.

The ThreadLocalManager class is responsible for cleaning up threaded resources at the end of a web request / thread processing. You may add your own cleanup handlers to it, but note that handlers are only cached for the current thread - meaning they have to be re-added in each thread.

In some situations this per thread object creation could be considered wasteful. In other situtations, such as sharing database connections, it is not even viable. So let's look at:

Per Application: Only one instance of the service is created for the entire application. Per Application services need to be const classes.

Writing const services may be off-putting to some - because they're constant, right!? *Wrong!*

Const classes can hold mutable data. The article From One Thread to Another... shows you how.

The smart ones may be thinking that perApplication scoped services can only hold other perApplication scoped services. Well, they would also be wrong! Using the magic of Proxies, perThread scoped services may be injected into perApplication scoped services. See the Proxies section for more info.


IoC has the concept of Proxies. A proxy is a thin wrapper class that fronts the real service. Proxies can have real benefits (as outlined below) but are not created by default.

To force a proxy to be created for a service, the service type must be a mixin and the service definition should set the proxy creation strategy to always.

Proxy classes are dynamically created by IoC at runtime using the Plastic library.

Ignoring the real implementation, if we had a simple service mixin such as:

mixin MyService {
    abstract Void doStuff(Str arg)

Then conceptually, you can imagine the proxy for MyService to look like (*):

using afIoc

class MyServiceProxy : MyService {
    @Inject Registry registry

    new make(|This| f) { f(this) }

    override Void doStuff(Str arg) {
        myService := (MyService) registry.serviceById(MyService#.qname)

(*) Actual proxy implementations are actually a lot more optimised and a bit more complicated but follow a similar pattern.

Each method invocation calls out to the Registry to retrieve the real service. This has the following benifits:

Lazy Loading

Because the proxy is injected everywhere in place of the real service, the real service is only created when a service method is invoked. That means service creation is delayed until the very last minute!

That means real lazy loading!

For services that have long startup times (e.g. maybe it establishes 100 database connections) it means this overhead is pushed back to when it is first used. This can significantly decrease application startup times. Invaluable when developing / running tests.

Circular Dependencies

Sometimes it can't be helped. Sometimes you have a circular dependency in your services:

ServiceA -> ServiceB -> ServiceC -> ServiceA

But by giving just one of the services a proxy, the chain is broken!

ServiceA -> ServiceBProxy

The chain is broken because when IoC creates ServiceA it injects a proxy for ServiceB. ServiceB is only created when a method is called on the proxy. By which time, ServiceA has already been created, so IoC happily creates ServiceC, injecting in ServiceA.

This means circular service dependencies are virtually eliminated!

Per Thread Injection

As mentioned earlier, proxies allow perThread scoped services to be injected into perApplication scoped services. Well, to be more precise, the proxy is injected into the perApplication scoped service. All calls to the proxy are then routed to the registry which creates on demand, the threaded version of the service.

Note that the perThread service mixin has to be const, otherwise it can't be injected into the perApplication scoped services, which by definition are also const.

Aspects / AOP

Aspect-oriented programming is sometimes a necessary evil, so IoC provides an aspect mechanism.

Method calls to proxied services may be wrapped witn your own code, allowing you to:

  • perform pre & post method logic
  • change method arguments
  • change the return value
  • catch and process any thrown Errs
  • ignore the method call entirely.

See @Advise for details.

Testing IoC Applications

To test an application that uses IoC it is reccommended you use the following approach:

using afIoc::Inject
using afIoc::Registry
using afIoc::RegistryBuilder

class TestExample : Test {
    Registry? reg

    MyService? myService

    override Void setup() {
        reg = RegistryBuilder()

        // set MyService and other @Inject'ed fields

    override Void teardown() {
        // use elvis incase 'reg' was never set due to a startup Err
        // we don't want an NullErr in teardown() to mask the real problem

    Void testStuff() {

class TestModule {
    // define any service / test overrides here

The setup() method builds the IoC Registry, passing in the application's AppModule and an additional TestModule. The TestModule is used to define any additional services or mock overrides required for the test.

See how the registry is used to inject dependencies into the test class. These may then be used in the test methods.

Note that you need to add modules from other IoC libraries the application / test uses. For instance, if using the IocEnv library library, it would need to added to the builder:

override Void setup() {
    reg = RegistryBuilder()

Should you fail to add a required module / library, the test will fail when IoC attempts to inject a service that hasn't been defined:

afIoc::IocErr: No service matches type XXXX.

Where XXXX is a service in the library you forgot to add.

Note that the setup() and teardown() could be moved into a common base class.


Recursively creating and injecting services into services can become surprisingly complex. So much so, when a error occurs it can be difficult to track down. For this reason IoC wraps all Errs thrown and provides an Operations Stack that gives insight into what IoC was attempting to do (and to what) when the error occured.

For example, if you try to contribute a number instead of a func to RegistryStartup you would get the following error:

afIoc::IocErr: Contribution 'Int' does not match service configuration value of |->Void|

Ioc Operation Trace:
  [ 1] Locating service by ID 'afIoc::RegistryStartup'
  [ 2] Creating REAL Service 'afIoc::RegistryStartup'
  [ 3] Creating 'afIoc::RegistryStartup' via ctor autobuild
  [ 4] Determining injection parameters for afIoc::RegistryStartupImpl Void make([Str:|->Void|] startups, |This->Void| in)
  [ 5] Looking for dependency of type [Str:|->Void|]
  [ 6] Gathering configuration of type [Str:|->Void|]
  [ 7] Invoking Void contributeRegustryStartup(afIoc::Configuration config) on acme::AppModule...

Stack Trace:
  afIoc::Utils.stackTraceFilter (Utils.fan:53)
  afIoc::RegistryImpl.serviceById (RegistryImpl.fan:218)
  afIoc::RegistryImpl.serviceById (RegistryImpl.fan)
  afIoc::RegistryImpl.startup (RegistryImpl.fan:170)
  acme::MyApplication$.start (MyApplication.fan:52)

From the above you can see that the error was caused by the method acme::AppModule.contributeRegustryStartup() when configuring RegistryStartupImpl.

If more information if required, you can turn on afIoc debug logging which outputs trace level contextual information.

Pod.find("afIoc").log.level = LogLevel.debug

Be warned though - it outputs a lot!

[  1]  --> Locating service by ID 'afReflux::Reflux'
[  2]   --> Creating PROXY for Service 'afReflux::Reflux'
[  3]    --> Creating REAL Service 'afIoc::ServiceProxyBuilder'
[  4]     --> Creating 'afIoc::ServiceProxyBuilder' via ctor autobuild
[  5]      --> Determining injection parameters for afIoc::ServiceProxyBuilderImpl Void make(afIoc::ActorPools actorPools, |This->Void| in)
[  5]        > Parameter 1 = afIoc::ActorPools
[  6]       --> Looking for dependency of type afIoc::ActorPools
[  6]       <-- Looking for dependency of type afIoc::ActorPools [000ms]
[  6]       --> Looking for dependency of type afIoc::ActorPools
[  6]         > Found Service 'afIoc::ActorPools'
[  7]        --> Creating REAL Service 'afIoc::ActorPools'
[  8]         --> Creating 'afIoc::ActorPools' via ctor autobuild
[  9]          --> Determining injection parameters for afIoc::ActorPoolsImpl Void make([Str:concurrent::ActorPool] actorPools)
[  9]            > Parameter 1 = [Str:concurrent::ActorPool]
[ 10]           --> Looking for dependency of type [Str:concurrent::ActorPool]
[ 10]           <-- Looking for dependency of type [Str:concurrent::ActorPool] [000ms]
[ 10]           --> Looking for dependency of type [Str:concurrent::ActorPool]
[ 10]             > Found Configuration '[Str:concurrent::ActorPool]'
[ 11]            --> Gathering configuration of type [Str:concurrent::ActorPool]
[ 12]             --> Determining injection parameters for afIoc::IocModule Void contributeActorPools(afIoc::Configuration config)
[ 12]               > Parameter 1 = afIoc::Configuration
[ 12]               > Parameter provided by user
[ 12]             <-- Determining injection parameters for afIoc::IocModule Void Void contributeActorPools(afIoc::Configuration config) [000ms]
[ 12]             --> Invoking Void contributeActorPools(afIoc::Configuration config) on afIoc::IocModule...
[ 12]             <-- Invoking Void contributeActorPools(afIoc::Configuration config) on afIoc::IocModule... [005ms]
[ 11]              > Added 1 contributions
[ 11]            <-- Gathering configuration of type [Str:concurrent::ActorPool] [005ms]

Release Notes


  • New: Added RegistryBuilder.dup().
  • New: Added IocService.options().
  • Chg: RegistryBuilder is now serializable.


  • New: Documentation - lots of it!
  • Chg: Renamed InjectionCtx.injectingInto --> InjectionCtx.target and InjectionCtx.injectingIntoType --> InjectionCtx.targetType.
  • Bug: @Autobuild fields could be created twice if an it-block ctor was used.


  • Chg: perApplication scoped services can only be created once, even during threaded race conditions.
  • Chg: Added withCtorArgs() and withFieldVals() to ServiceDefinitions; building custom services is now even easier!
  • Chg: LocalProvider takes into account @Inject.type when injecting LocalLists and LocalMaps. See ThreadLocalManager.
  • Chg: RegistryBuilder.addModulesFromPod() now takes a Str (pod name), not a pod instance.
  • Chg: DependencyProviders is more accessible for efanXtra.
  • Bug: ServiceDefinitions.withImplId() should not have taken an Id parameter.


  • New: All attributes of a service (scope, proxy, etc...) may be overridden.
  • New: @Override facet for defining service override methods in AppModule.
  • New: @Autobuild facet for injecting non-service instances.
  • New: ServiceDefinitions, ServiceDefinitionOptions and ServiceOverrideOptions replaces ServiceBinder et al.
  • New: Added RegistryBuilder.removeModule().
  • Chg: Optomised and reduced internal code - now 20% faster!
  • Chg: Services are not proxied unless they need to be; e.g. it has method advice, or is thread scope being injected into an app scoped service. (Potential breaking change.)
  • Chg: DependencyProviders are applied to all fields, @Inject facet is no longer required.
  • Chg: Deleted autobuild from @Inject facet in favour of a new-ish @Autobuild facet. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Default serviceId for @Build methods is now the qualified name of the return Type. (Potential breaking change.)
  • Chg: Deleted ServiceOverrides service in favour of service @Override methods. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Deleted ServiceStats service in favour of method Registry.serviceDefinitions(). (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Deleted all existing @Deprecated classes. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: LogProvider service may be overridden to ensure it provides all injected Log instances. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Renamed ServiceStat -> ServiceDefinition. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Lower cased the names of the ServiceLifecycle enum. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Merged LocalRefProvider, LocalListProvider and LocalMapProvider into the one LocalProvider.
  • Bug: IocService methods now more closely follow those of Registry.


  • New: Added a dedicated IocShutdownErr throw when registry methods are invoked after it has been shutdown.
  • Chg: Added checked parameter to Registry.serviceById().
  • Chg: Removed the little used Unwrappable Err mixin.
  • Bug: RegistryBuilder could potentially throw an Err when adding both modules and pods.


  • Bug: Configuration contributions added via set() did not have any implied ordering constraints.


  • Chg: Configuration ordering constraints are no longer specified with strings. Use the new Constraints class to pass your Obj keys in. This avoids problems with toStr() and string keys with commas.


  • New: All service configuration is done through the uber Configuration object.
  • New: Configuration IDs can now be injected by specifying a Map rather than a List.
  • New: Added @Advise.serviceType for advising a single service.
  • Chg: Deprecated OrderedConfig and MappedConfig in favour of Configuration.
  • Chg: Aspect invoker references null instead of an empty list when holding method advice.
  • Chg: LocalRefProvider, LocalListProvider and LocalMapProvider now use the Type's qualified name as the key
  • Chg: Deleted all existing @Deprecated classes.
  • Bug: Could not always contribute empty maps and lists created with shorthand notation, e.g. [,].


  • New: Methods on proxied services may now have plain default values - Plastic will attempt to guess what they are!
  • Chg: Removed deprecated classes TypeCoercer, StrategyRegistry and NotFoundErr.
  • Chg: Changed the default values for some Registry methods to null (from Obj#.emptyList).
  • Chg: Moved the startup logging to RegistryStartup contributions so they could easily be removed / overridden.
  • Chg: Removed the RegistryBuilder options logServiceCreation, disableProxies, suppressStartupBanner and suppressStartupServiceList.
  • Chg: Gave the IoC ActorPool a name.
  • Bug: Could not autobuild nullable types.


  • New: Threaded services can be overriden.
  • New: Using Bean Utils 0.0.2
  • Chg: Deleted all previous @Deprecated classes and methods.
  • Chg: Deprecated TypeCoercer, StrategyRegistry and NotFoundErr in favour of new Bean Utils library.
  • Chg: Type checks involving Lists and Maps when calling methods and ctors are more lenient.
  • Chg: Renamed RegistryShutdownHub -> RegistryShutdown. Shutdown listeners are deprecated, use standard AppModule contributions instead.
  • Chg: Renamed DependencyProviderSource -> DependencyProviders.
  • Chg: Renamed ServiceOverride -> ServiceOverrides.
  • Chg: Renamed InjectionType -> InjectionKind.
  • Chg: Discovered List.eachRange()!
  • Chg: IoC system ActorPool is stopped on shutdown.
  • Bug: Trying to proxy a mixin with a static field gave an Err.


  • New: Registry.dependencyByType() now returns services via a type inheritance search.
  • New: LocalRefs, LocalMaps, LocalLists instances may now be @Injected thanks to new DependencyProviders
  • New: Added fieldVals parameter to Regsitry.autobuild(...) and Regsitry.createProxy(...) so non-DI fields may also be set by an it-block.
  • New: Added ActorPools class to keep tabs on ActorPools.
  • New: Added moduleTypes() and modulePods() to RegistryMeta.
  • New: Added createProxy() to OrderedConfig and MappedConfig.
  • Chg: Optomised internal concurrent processes - now 20% faster!
  • Chg: Concurrent has been broken out into an external dependency.
  • Chg: Deprecated ConcurrentState, ConcurrentCache, ThreadStash in favour of Concurrent classes.
  • Chg: Attempting to @Inject into a static field will now throw an Err.
  • Chg: Renamed ThreadStashManager -> ThreadLocalManager
  • Chg: Renamed RegistryOptions -> RegistryMeta
  • Chg: Re-jigged RegistryBuilder logic and API.
  • Chg: Re-jigged StrategyRegistry to add findAllChildren().
  • Chg: TypeCoercer is now const.


  • Chg: Available values in NotFoundErr are now sorted alphabetically.
  • Bug: Attempting to inject or autobuild a threaded service in an app-scoped (const) service gave an error.


  • New: TypeCoercer converts Lists from one parameterised type to another.
  • New: ConcurrentCache gets new methods: clear(), isEmpty(), remove(), replace(), size().
  • New: Added clearCache() to TypeCoercer.
  • New: Added clearCache() to StrategyRegistry.
  • Chg: Added a checked parameter to Registry.dependencyByType()
  • Chg: Deprecated ServiceBinder.bindImpl() in favour of a nullable parameter in ServiceBinder.bind()
  • Chg: Errs thrown in Registry.callMethod() are no longed wrapped in an IocErr.
  • Chg: Renamed @ServiceId.serviceId -> @ServiceId.id
  • Bug: Registry.callMethod() could not handle methods with default arguments.
  • Bug: Log could not be injected via ctor.


  • New: Registry.createProxy() lets you create a lazy proxy from an arbituary mixin / impl pair.
  • New: Registry.callMethod() lets you invoke methods with dependencies injected into the parameters.
  • New: LogProvider lets you inject Log instances.
  • New: InjectionCtx contains details as to what type of injection is taking place. (Renamed from ProviderCtx)
  • New: Service overrides can use Types as the config key.
  • Chg: When a service type is defined multiple times, a default one is returned by dependencyByType.
  • Chg: Default ServiceIds are now the fully qualified names of the service (mixin) type. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Removed dependency type from DependencyProvider method signatures. It moved to InjectionCtx. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Liberated the PipelineBuilder util service. It moved to BedSheet. (Breaking change.)
  • Chg: Overhauled InjectionCtx to make use of ThreadStacks so it doesn't need to be passed around.


  • Chg: InjectionCtx is now threaded and used in Lazy Service creation. (Um, that means more complete Operation Stacks in IocErrs!)
  • Bug: Once a proxied service, always a proxied service! In some cases the real service could have been returned.


  • New: RegistryBuilder options are now available via RegistryOptions.
  • Chg: Injectable services are now documented with (Service).
  • Chg: Enabled multi-line banner text.


  • New: Added makeWithMap() ctor and getOrAdd() to ConcurrentCache.
  • New: NotFoundErr now pretty prints available values.
  • Chg: Plastic has been broken out into an external dependency.
  • Chg: Rejigged the stack trace filter not to throw internal IocErrs as the cause.
  • Bug: DependencyProviders could Err when they depended on lazy services (recursion error).
  • Bug: ThreadStash name prefix tidy.


  • New: PlasticCompilationErr gives detailed info and code snippets.
  • Chg: Made the useful OperationTrace a field of IocErr.
  • Chg: afPlastic now generates using statements.
  • Chg: Toned down RegistryBuilder logging.
  • Bug: Before and After ordering constraint prefixes were not case insensitive.


  • New: Added ConcurrentCache class, an application of ConcurrentState designed for fast reads.
  • New: Added PlasticClassModel.extendClass() for the model may now extend multiple Mixins.
  • New: Added PlasticClassModel.addMethod() for adding new methods.
  • Chg: ConcurrentState state may now be null (and added an instance count).


  • New: Added OrderedConfig.remove() and MappedConfig.remove().
  • New: Added RegistryBuilder#moduleTypes to return a list of modules types held by the builder.
  • New: Added suppressStartupMsg build option.
  • Chg: Rejigged the config override argument order. (Breaking Change.)
  • Chg: Deleted @Deprecated config methods.
  • Chg: Transferred VCS ownership to AlienFactory
  • Chg: Test code is no longer distributed with the afIoc.pod - pod size was nearing 500 Kb!
  • Chg: ThreadStashs have less verbose names.
  • Bug: Could not override ordered config if it was referenced by constraints.


  • New: Added PipelineBuilder util service.
  • Chg: Registry.autobuild() now looks for a default implementation if passed a mixin.
  • Chg: Made it clear when service creation fails due to Registry Shutdown.
  • Bug: Proxy Types for lazy services are now cached. Would have caused a memory leak when using creating lots of threaded const services.
  • Bug: Ordered contributions with multiple before: constraints could be added to the config list multiple times.
  • Bug: afPlastic would only allow methods to be overridden if they were defined in the immediate parent type.
  • Bug: Stack frames were lost from Errs originating from module builder methods.


  • New: Added TypeCoercer util class that converts an Obj to a given type using toXXX() and fromXXX() methods.
  • Chg: OrderedConfig contributions are coerced to the contrib type.
  • Chg: MappedConfig key and value contributions are coerced to their required types.
  • Chg: Added shortcut @Operator This add(obj) to OrderedConfig and @Deprecated Void addUnordered(obj).
  • Chg: Added shortcut @Operator This set(key, val) to MappedConfig and @Deprecated Void addMapped(key, val).
  • Chg: Public method on OrderedConfig and MappedConfig now return this and other tweaks.
  • Chg: Exposed @NoDoc PlasticPodCompiler so it may be used outside of afIoc.


  • Bug: Real impls of proxied const services were not being cached.
  • Bug: The implied order of unordered config in OrderedConfig was not assured.
  • Bug: Could not inject null into const fields via a custom DependencyProvider.



  • New: IocErr is thrown on startup if module advisor methods don't match any proxyable serivces.
  • New: Module advisor methods may be marked as optional.
  • New: Add thread clean up handlers to ThreadStashManager.
  • New: Added ThreadStash#contains
  • Chg: Operations Err trace is now part of the Err msg (and no longer logged to sys.err)
  • Chg: ConcurrentState.withState() now returns a Future.
  • Bug: Lifecyle data for threaded Services was not threaded. (Caused problems for threaded proxy services.)


  • New: Simple Aspect API for advising proxied servies.
  • New: Service proxies for mixins are generated and compiled on the fly to give true lazy loading.
  • New: ThreadStashManager now keeps tabs on your ThreadStashes so they may be cleanup at the end of, um... say a web request!
  • Chg: Revamped LocalStash into ThreadStash
  • Chg: Mapped override keys can always be a Str
  • Chg: Removed Ioc frames from stack traces (no more 150+ line stacktraces!)
  • Chg: Reducded INFO logging.
  • Bug: @Build.serivceId was not overriding the build method name.
  • Bug: Distributed mapped overide could throw an invalid override not found err.
  • Bug: Autobuild now checks if the type is instantiable.


  • Chg: Registry#autobuild now accepts optional parameters to pass / mix into the ctor.
  • Chg: ConcurrentState now accepts a factory method for creating / initialising state.


  • New: Browse defined services via ServiceStats
  • New: Override defined services with your own implementations via the new powerful ServiceOverrides feature.
  • New: Override any existing OrderedConfig contribution with you own, via OrderedConfig.addOverride.
  • New: Override any existing MappedConfig contribution with you own, via MappedConfig.addOverride.
  • New: Ordered configurations may define Placeholders.
  • Chg: Registry shutdown listeners may now be ordered.
  • Chg: Improved Registry startup times by only inspecting Pods (for modules) the once.
  • Chg: IocService rethrows any startup Errs when getting the registry. See Errs on Service.start().


  • New: Extend IoC by defining your own DependencyProviders.
  • New: @ServiceId lets you disambiguate between different implmentations of the same service mixin.
  • New: @Autobuild injects a fresh service on every injection.
  • New: Ordered configuration contributions are ordered across modules.
  • Bug: Services can be created even if they don't define any ctors.


  • New: Added addUnorderedAll and addMappedAll to OrderedConfig and MappedConfig.
  • Chg: Multiple instances of ConcurrentState can be created with the same state class.
  • Bug: Made public the withState() and getState() methods on ConcurrentState.
  • Bug: NPE could be thrown if ctor depdendency not found.


  • New: A fully loaded preview release.